Christianity

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The Christian Flag is a flag designed in the early 20th century to represent all of Christianity and Christendom, and has been most popular among Christian churches in

North America, Africa and Latin America. The flag has a white field, with a red Latin cross inside a blue canton. The shade of red on the cross symbolizes the blood that

Jesus shed on Calvary. The blue represents the waters of baptism as well as the faithfulness of Jesus. The white represents Jesus' purity. In conventional vexillology,

a white flag is linked to surrender, a reference to the Biblical description of Jesus' non-violence and surrender to God. The dimensions of the flag and canton have no

official specifications.


The flag was first accepted by the mainline Protestant denominations in the United States, and by the 1980s many institutions had described policies for displaying it

inside churches. During World War II the flag was flown along with the U.S. Flag in a number of Lutheran churches, many of them with German backgrounds, who wanted

to show their solidarity with the United States during the war with Germany.


The Christian Flag spread outside North America with Protestant missionaries. It can be seen today in or outside many Protestant churches throughout the world,

particularly in Latin America and Africa, as well as some Roman Catholic churches. It has so far been adopted by some churches in Europe, Asia, and Africa as well.

Eastern Orthodox, especially parishes in the Western Rite tradition have only recently started to use the flag.

Christianity (from the Ancient Greek: Χριστιανός Christianos and the Latin suffix -itas) is a monotheistic and Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus

as presented in canonical gospels and other New Testament writings. It also considers the Hebrew Bible, which is known as the Old Testament, to be canonical. Adherents

of the Christian faith are known as Christians.


The mainstream Christian belief is that Jesus is the Son of God, fully divine and fully human and the saviour of humanity. Because of this, Christians commonly refer to Jesus

as Christ or Messiah Jesus' ministry, sacrificial death, and subsequent resurrection, are often referred to as the Gospel message ("good news"). In short, the Gospel is news

of God the Father's eternal victory over evil, and the promise of salvation and eternal life for all people, through divine grace. Jesus stated that love is the greatest commandment:

"Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind [and] thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself."


Worldwide the three largest groups of Christianity are the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox churches, and the various denominations of Protestantism. The Roman

Catholic and Eastern Orthodox patriarchates split from one another in the East–West Schism of 1054 AD, and Protestantism came into existence during the Protestant Reformation of the 16th century, splitting from the Roman Catholic Church.


Christianity began as a Jewish sect in the mid-1st century. Originating in the Levant region of the Middle East (modern Israel and Palestine), it quickly spread to Syria, Mesopotamia, Asia Minor and Egypt. It grew in size and influence over a few decades, and by the end of the 4th century had become the official state religion of the Roman Empire, replacing other forms of religion practiced under Roman rule. During the Middle Ages, most of the remainder of Europe was Christianized, with Christians also being a sometimes large religious minority in the Middle East, North Africa, Ethiopia and parts of India. Following the Age of Discovery, through missionary work and colonization, Christianity spread to the Americas, Australasia, sub-Saharan Africa, and the rest of the world.


Christians believe that Jesus is the Messiah prophesied in the Hebrew Bible, referred to as the "Old Testament" in Christianity. The foundation of Christian theology is expressed in the early Christian ecumenical creeds which contain claims predominantly accepted by followers of the Christian faith. These professions state that Jesus suffered, died, was buried, and was resurrected from the dead in order to grant eternal life to those who believe in him and trust him for the remission of their sins (salvation). They further maintain that Jesus bodily ascended into heaven where he rules and reigns with God the Father. Most denominations teach that Jesus will return to judge all humans, living and dead, and grant eternal life to his followers. He is considered the model of a virtuous life, and both the revealer and physical incarnation of God. Christians call the message of Jesus Christ the Gospel ("good news") and generally adhere to the Ten Commandments.


As of the early 21st century, Christianity has approximately 2.2 billion adherents. Christianity represents about a third of the world's population and is the world's largest religion.

Christianity is the state religion of several countries. Among all Christians, 37.5% live in the Americas, 25.7% live in Europe, 22.5% live in Africa, 13.1% live in Asia, 1.2% live in Oceania and 0.9% live in the Middle East.


Source: Wikipedia.org

Creeds

Creeds (from Latin credo meaning "I believe") are concise doctrinal statements or confessions, usually of controversies of the 4th and 5th centuries to become statements of faith.


Many evangelical Protestants reject creeds as definitive statements of faith, even while agreeing with some or all of the substance of the creeds. The Baptists have been non-creedal “in that they have not sought to establish binding authoritative confessions of faith on one another.” Also rejecting creeds are groups with roots in the Restoration Movement, such as the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), the Evangelical Christian Church in Canada and the Churches of Christ.


An Eastern Christian Icon depicting Emperor Constantine and the Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea (325) as holding the Niceno–Constantinopolitan Creed of 381.

The Apostles' Creed remains the most popular statement of the articles of Christian faith that are generally acceptable to most Christian denominations that are creedal. It is widely used by a number of Christian denominations for both liturgical and catechetical purposes, most visibly by liturgical Churches of Western Christian tradition, including the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church, Lutheranism, Anglicanism, and Western Orthodoxy. It is also used by Presbyterians, Methodists and Congregationalists. This particular creed was developed between the 2nd and 9th centuries. Its central doctrines are those of the Trinity and God the Creator. Each of the doctrines found in this creed can be traced to statements current in the apostolic period. The creed was apparently used as a summary of Christian doctrine for baptismal candidates in the churches of Rome.


Its main points:

belief in God the Father, Jesus Christ as the Son of God and the Holy Spirit the death, descent into hell, resurrection, and ascension of Christ the holiness of the Church and the

communion of saints, Christ's second coming, the Day of Judgement and salvation of the faithful. The Nicene Creed, largely a response to Arianism, was formulated at the Councils of Nicaea and Constantinople in 325 and 381 respectively and ratified as the universal creed of Christendom by the First Council of Ephesus in 431.


The Chalcedonian Creed, developed at the Council of Chalcedon in 451, though rejected by the Oriental Orthodox Churches, aught Christ "to be acknowledged in two natures,

in confusedly, unchangeably, indivisibly, inseparably": one divine and one human, and that both natures are perfect but are nevertheless perfectly united into one person.


The Athanasian Creed received in the Western Church as having the same status as the Nicene and Chalcedonian, says: "We worship one God in Trinity, and Trinity in Unity;

neither confounding the Persons nor dividing the Substance."


Most Christians (Roman Catholics, Eastern Orthodox, Eastern Rite and Protestants alike) accept the use of creeds and subscribe to at least one of the creeds mentioned above.

Fameux Chrétiens / Famous Christians

Saint Peter, Paul the Apostle, John of Damascus, Saint Helena, Saints Cyril and Methodius, The Romanovs, Sun Yat-sen, Constantine the Great, Charlemagne, Joan of Arc,


Thomas Aquinas, Augustine of Hippo, Catherine of Siena, Antoni Gaudi, Michelangelo, Jean-Baptiste de La Salle, Maria Theresa, Jean Calvin, Teresa of Ávila, Anton Chekhov,


Brothers Grimm, Isaac Newton, Martin Luther, Christopher Columbus, Ludwig van Beethoven, Galileo Galilei, William Shakespeare, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart,


Leonardo da Vinci, Thérèse of Lisieux, Gregor Mendel, John D. Rockefeller, Florence Nightingale, Louis Pasteur, Max Planck, Martin Luther King, Jr., Mother Teresa,


John F. Kennedy, Patriarch Bartholomew I of Constantinople, Pope John Paul II, Leo Tolstoy, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, Nelson Mandela, Lionel Messi, Carlos Slim Helú,

Marissa Mayer, Novak Djokovic, Gerard Butler, Freida Pinto.

Christian views of Jesus are based on the teachings and beliefs outlined in the Canonical gospels, New Testament letters, and the Christian creeds. These outline the key beliefs held by Christians about Jesus, including his divinity, humanity, and earthly life. The second sentence in the ICET version of the Nicene Creed states: "We believe in one Lord, Jesus Christ, the only Son of God...". In the New Testament Jesus indicates that he is the Son of God by calling God his father.


Christians consider Jesus the Christ and believe that through his death and resurrection, humans can be reconciled to God and thereby are offered salvation and the promise of eternal life. These teachings emphasize that as the willing Lamb of God, Jesus chose to suffer in Calvary as a sign of his full obedience to the will of the Eternal Father, as an "agent and servant of God". The choice Jesus made thus counter-positions him as a new man of morality and obedience, in contrast to Adam's disobedience.


Most Christians believe that Jesus was both human and the Son of God. While there have been theological debate over the nature of Jesus, Trinitarian Christians generally believe that Jesus is the Logos, God incarnate, God the Son, and "true God and true man" (or both fully divine and fully human). Jesus, having become fully human in all respects, suffered the pains and temptations of a mortal man, yet he did not sin. As fully God, he defeated death and rose to life again. According to the Bible, God raised him from the dead. He ascended to heaven, to sit at the "Right Hand of God," and he will return to earth again for the Last Judgment and the establishment of the Kingdom of God in the World to Come

The historicity of Jesus refers to the analysis of historical data to determine if Jesus existed as a historical figure, approximately where and when he lived, and if any of the major milestones in his life, such as his method of death, can be confirmed as historical events. In contrast, the study of the historical Jesus goes beyond the question of his historicity and attempts to reconstruct portraits of his life and teachings, based on methods such as biblical criticism of gospel texts and the history of first century Judea.


Virtually all modern scholars agree that Jesus existed, and see the theories of his non-existence as effectively refuted. Scholars generally agree that Jesus was a Galilean Jew who was born BC 7–2 and died AD 30–36. Most scholars hold that Jesus lived in Galilee and Judea and that he spoke Aramaic and may have also spoken Hebrew and Greek. Although scholars differ on the reconstruction of the specific episodes of the life of Jesus, the two events whose historicity is subject to "almost universal assent" are that he was baptized by John the Baptist and was crucified by the order of the Roman Prefect Pontius Pilate.


Beyond baptism and crucifixion, scholars attribute varying levels of certainty to the historicity of other events and a list of eight facts that may be historically certain about Jesus and his followers has been widely discussed. But scholarly agreement on this extended list is not universal, e.g. while some scholars accepts that Jesus called disciples, others maintain that Jesus imposed no hierarchy and preached to all in equal terms.


Since the 18th century a number of quests for the historical Jesus have taken place, and historical critical methods for studying the historicity of Jesus have been developed. Various Christian and non-Christian sources are used to study and establish the historicity of Jesus, e.g. Jewish sources such as Josephus, and Roman sources such as Tacitus. These sources are compared and contrasted to Christian sources such as the Pauline letters and the synoptic gospels to determine the historicity of Jesus. These sources are usually independent of each other (e.g. Jewish sources do not draw upon Roman sources), and similarities and differences between them are used in the authentication process

A definition of Christianity


Christianity: a universal missionary religion based on the recognition in Jesus of Nazareth, the Christ, that is to say the Messiah foretold by the prophets of the Old Testament. Issue of Judaism, its doctrine is based on the immortality of the soul, the resurrection of the body, love of neighbour and salvation made possible by the crucifixion of Jesus. Christianity is based on the Bible and especially the New Testament (Gospels, Epistles ,...) describing the teachings of Jesus. In the fourth century, it grows around the Mediterranean and then spread throughout Europe after the conversion of Roman Emperor Constantine, who leaves the protection of tutelary gods of the Empire to that of the god of the Christians.


The schism of 1054 saw the final separation of the Orthodox Church of Rome. The willingness of the Catholic Church to go free the Holy Places begin eight crusades between 1096 to 1270. In the sixteenth century Reformation led to further fragmentation of Christianity. In response to corruption and abuse (Inquisition) of the Roman Church, Martin Luther and John Calvin proposed an alternative closer to the Bible and practice giving rise to different churches or Protestant Reformed say, the most important are the Lutheran and Calvinist.

Catholicism: the Catholic Church is the largest Christian religion, and the pope is the spiritual leader. It is called "Catholic", that is to say universal, as it has everywhere the same doctrine, "Roman" for the pope lives in Rome the Vatican and "apostolic" because the pope is the successor of the apostles, the apostle Peter was considered the first Pope. Unlike Protestantism which brings the Christian faith to the Scriptures alone, the Catholic Church sees itself as the sole heir and custodian of the teachings of Jesus, transmitted orally and in writing. Any discrepancy with the dogma and therefore the universal nature of Catholicism creates a heresy (eg Arianism, Cathars) or schism (Orthodox, Protestant).


Besides the Scriptures (Old and New Testaments), the Catholic Church is based on Tradition which is the continuity of divine action and the Church is the only authorized interpreter of truth.

The mystery of the incarnation of Christ, his death and resurrection are the foundation of his doctrine. The sacraments, seven in a number of vital importance: baptism, confirmation, penitence

(confession, contrition and reparation of sins) Eucharist, marriage, ordination, anointing of the sick (formerly known as extreme unction). The pope is the "primus inter pares," the bishop takes precedence over others "and"one who provides the unity of the Catholic Church. "The infallibility of the pope (dogma established in 1870) is highly regulated. It addresses issues of faith and there must be consensus or virtual unanimity among the bishops. Example: the immaculate conception in 1858, and Assumption in 1950

Monotheistic religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. The Christian faith is essentially faith in Jesus as the Christ (or Messiah), the Son of God, the Savior, and, according to Trinitarianism, God the Son, part of the Trinity with God the Father and the Holy Spirit.

Branches of Christianity

Catholicism – broad term for the body of the Catholic faith, its theologies and doctrines, its liturgical, ethical, spiritual, and behavioural characteristics, as well as a religious

people as a whole.


Roman CatholicismCatholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the world's largest Christian church, with more than one billion members.


Independent Catholic Churches – Catholic congregations that are not in communion with the Roman Catholic Church or any other churches whose sacraments are

recognized by the Roman Catholic Church (such as the Eastern Orthodox and some Oriental Orthodox Churches).


Old Catholic Church is a number of Ultrajectine Christian churches that originated with groups that split from the Roman Catholic Church over certain doctrines, most importantly that of Papal Infallibility.

  1. Roman Catholic Church world's largest Christian church, with more than one billion members.

  2. Union of Utrecht (Old Catholic) federation of Old Catholic Churches, not in communion with Rome, that seceded from the Roman Catholic Church over the issue of Papal infallibility.

  3. Eastern Christianity Christian traditions and churches developed in the Balkans, Eastern Europe, Asia Minor, the Middle East, Horn of Africa, India and parts of the Far East over several centuries of religious antiquity.

  4. Eastern Orthodox Church – officially called the Orthodox Catholic Church and commonly referred to as the Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest Christian church in the world, with an estimated 300 million adherents mainly in the countries of Belarus, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Georgia, Greece, Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Romania, Russia, Serbia, and Ukraine, all of which are majority Eastern Orthodox.

  5. Oriental Orthodoxy faith of those Eastern Christian Churches that recognize only three ecumenical councils, the First Council of Nicaea, the First Council of Constantinople and the First Council of Ephesus.

  6. Eastern Catholic Churches are autonomous, self-governing (in Latin, sui iuris) particular churches in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, the Pope.

  7. comprises multiple Christian traditions of Syriac Christianity – Syriac-speaking Christians of Mesopotamia,, comprise multiple Christian traditions of Eastern Christianity.

Protestantismone of the major groupings within Christianity, and has been defined as "any Western Christian who is not an adherent

of a Catholic, Anglican, or Eastern Church," though some consider Anglicanism to be Protestant as well.


  1. Anglicanism, tradition within Christianity comprising churches with historical connections to the Church of England or similar beliefs,
    worship and church structures.

  2. Adventism Christian movement began in the 19th century, in the context of the Second Great Awakening revival in the United States.

  3. Anabaptist Protestant Christians of the Radical Reformation of 16th-century Europe, although some consider Anabaptism to be a distinct
    movement from Protestantism. Anabaptists practice adult baptism as well as a belief in pacifism.

  4. Baptist Christians comprise a group of denominations and churches that subscribe to a doctrine that baptism should be performed
    only for professing believers (believer's baptism, as opposed to infant baptism), and that it must be done by immersion (as opposed to
    affusion or sprinkling).

  5. Calvinism is a Protestant theological system and an approach to the Christian life.

  6. Evangelicalism Protestant Christian movement which began in the 17th century and became an organized movement with the emergence around
    1730 of the Methodists in England and the Pietists among Lutherans in Germany and Scandinavia.

  7. Holiness movement – set of beliefs and practices emerging from the Methodist Christian church in the mid 19th century.

  8. Lutheranism is a major branch of Western Christianity that identifies with the theology of Martin Luther, a German reformer.

  9. Pentecostalism is a renewal movement within Christianity that places special emphasis on a direct personal experience of God through the baptism in
    the Holy Spirit.

  10. Presbyterianism is a branch of Protestant Christianity that adheres to the Calvinist theological tradition and whose congregations are organized
    according to a Presbyterian polity.

Restoration Movement, a Christian movement that began on the American frontier during the Second Great Awakening of the early 19th century.


  1. Wesleyanism movement of Protestant Christians who seek to follow the methods or theology of the eighteenth-century evangelical reformers, John Wesley and his brother Charles Wesley.

  2. Continuing, the Anglican movement, a number of Christian churches in various countries profess Anglicanism while remaining outside the Anglican Communion.

  3. Seventh-day Adventist Church Protestant Christian denomination distinguished by its observance of Saturday, the original seventh day of the Judeo-Christian week, as the Sabbath, and by its emphasis on the imminent second coming (Advent) of Jesus Christ.

  4. Mennonites were an ethnoreligious group based around the church communities of the Christian Anabaptist denominations named after the Frisian Menno Simons (1496–1561), who, through his Amish, sometimes referred to as Amish Mennonites, are a group of Christian church fellowships that form a subgroup of the Mennonite churches.

  5. Hutterites, a communal branch of Anabaptists who, like the Amish and Mennonites, trace their roots to the Radical Reformation of the 16th century.

  6. Schwarzenau Brethren, originated in Germany, the outcome of the Radical Pietist ferment of the late 17th and early 18th centuries.

List of Reformed churches group of Christian Protestant denominations historically related by a similar Calvinist system of doctrine.


  1. National Association of Evangelicals, the fellowship of member denominations, churches, organizations, and individuals.

  2. Christian Holiness Partnership is an international organization of individuals and organizational and denominational affiliates within the holiness movement.

  3. List of Lutheran denominations, list of Lutheran denominations grouped by affiliation with international Lutheran bodies.

  4. Pentecostal World Conference, the fellowship of Pentecostal believers and denominations from across the world.


List of Presbyterian denominations in Australia, list of various Presbyterian denominations in Australia


  1. Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), mainline Protestant Christian denomination in North America.

  2. Churches of Christ, autonomous Christian congregations associated with one another, seeking to base doctrine and practice on the Bible alone, and seeking to be New Testament congregations as originally established by the authority of Christ.

  3. Christian churches and churches of Christ, part of the Restoration Movement and share historical roots with the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) and the a cappella Churches of Christ. Methodism, movement of Anglican Christianity represented by a number of denominations and organizations, claiming a total of approximately seventy million adherents worldwide. The movement traces its roots to John Wesley's evangelistic revival movement within Anglicanism

Nontrinitarian – Nontrinitarianism (or antitrinitarianism) refers to monotheistic belief systems, primarily within Christianity, which reject the Christian doctrine the Trinity, namely, the teaching that God is three distinct hypostases or persons and yet co-eternal, co-equal, and indivisibly united in one essence or ousia.


  1. Latter Day Saint movement, Latter Day Saint movement (also called the LDS movement or LDS restorationists movement) is the collection of independent church groups that trace their origins to a Christian primitivist movement founded by Joseph Smith in the late 1820s.

  2. Oneness Pentecostalism – Oneness Pentecostalism (also known as Apostolic Pentecostalism or One God Pentecostalism) refers to a grouping of denominations and believers within Pentecostal Christianity, all of whom subscribe to the nontrinitarian theological doctrine of Oneness.

  3. Bible Student movement – Bible Student movement is the name adopted by a Millennialist Restorationists Christian movement that emerged from the teachings and ministry of Charles Taze Russell, also known as Pastor Russell.



Nontrinitarian denominations


  1. Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, Church of Christ was the original name of the Latter Day Saint church founded by Joseph Smith, Jr.

  2. Jehovah's Witnesses, Jehovah's Witnesses is a millenarian restorationists Christian denomination with nontrinitarian beliefs distinct from mainstream Christianity.